Secondary and tertiary effects

  • Primary Prevention – early intervention and prevention: prevent development of risk factors through education and awareness, build social
  • Secondary: reduce prevalence of risk factors. Begun to develop early signs of disturbance or who are exposed to environments known to be harmful – people at risk or early signs
  • Tertiary: Mitigation of risk


place-based collective impact combines a place-based focus on a geographic location, citizen engagement and local decision making with collective impacts emphasis on cross sector collaboration, adaptive management and systems change to:

  1. Promote citizen participation and cooperative decision making
  2. Build social capital (trust, networks)
  3. Build community capacity
  4. Re-engineer service systems

Hogan, Rubenstein and Fry 2018


strength-based practice is a social work practice theory that emphasizes people’s self-determination and strengths. It is a philosophy and a way of viewing clients as resourceful and resilient in the face of adversity. It is client-led, with a focus on future outcomes and strengths that people bring to a problem or crisis.